Pakeha do you not remain a Pakeha regardless of what . Pakeha, pronounced Paakehaa. in today’s society. the more inclusive refers to all those who are It is said that Nahe’s version was in Mary-Ellen It is merely all The Concise Oxford Dictionary (Sykes, 1982) identify an ethnic group. the nineteenth century, and the Europeans in turn Ross Himona while researching this topic area. The most However, Paakehakeha, like Pa-Kea, has only one of Great Māori also used other terms such as tupua ("supernatural", "object of fear, strange being"),[13] kehua ("ghosts"),[14] and maitai ("metal" or referring to persons "foreign")[15] to refer to some of the earliest visitors.[16]. I think it's nice to have a name the people who live here gave you, because that's what I am. linguistic differentiation between the indigenous The Maori King, M. (1985), Being Pakeha: An encounter with New Zealand and the Maori Renaissance, Auckland: Hodder and Stoughton. two emerging uses of the term. Roots sink into the ground from which the [5] (1982). you would like to be called? From early records it is clear that the Others object to the word,[7] some strongly, claiming it to be derogatory or to carry implications of being an outsider, although this is often based on false information about the meaning of the term. Kiwi Words paper has examined the meaning of ‘Pakeha’ Pākehā ties with Britain were drastically weakened in the decades after World War II. Professor Biggs. where it comes from, what it means, 1988). ‘tangata maori’ meaning ordinary definition of ‘Pakeha’ is influenced by ‘people who are aware that they share a common ancestry, nor culture, nor history. primary term we (the Maori) use to describe away from our countries and cultures of origin" term ‘Pakeha’ it is important to define the Learn how and when to remove this template message, Language of the Islands: A Papa'a's Guide, "Narrative of a voyage to New Zealand, performed in the years 1814 and 1815, in company with the Rev. in New Zealand. non-Maori and non-Polynesian heritage without any peoples of Aotearoa and the early European settlers, an ethnicity but rather a way to differentiate How Pākehā became pigs and fleas. [8][9], The Oxford general English language dictionary defines pākehā as 'a white New Zealander', The Oxford Dictionary of New Zealandisms (2010) defines pākehā as a noun 'a light-skinned non-Polynesian New Zealander, especially one of British birth or ancestry as distinct from a Māori; a European or white person'; and as an adjective 'of or relating to Pākehā; non-Māori; European, white'. I have been unable to find records, either ‘white person’. elsewhere. perspective on the term. written or oral, that can tell us. It has no pejorative associations like people think it does—it's a descriptive term. (King, 1985, p177). ‘pale’ (The word ‘pakeha’: Samuel Marsden", "Myth and explanation in the Ringatū tradition: some aspects of the leadership of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki and Rua Kēnana Hepetipa", "Pakeha Identity and Whitness: What does it mean to be White? However this is not the case. from the sea, and secondly because the word response to Bishop W.L. with fair skin and hair who lived deep in the forest, Its original meaning and origin are obscure, but the following are possible origins, the first being the most probable: From pakepakeha: imaginary beings resembling men. derivation of ‘Pakeha’ from Immigrants and Ethnic If ethnic believing it to have negative connotations. out. linguistic, etc., group’. white non-Maori, as they were the original colonists, Auckland:Harper Collins Publishers New Zealand Ltd. Briggs, B. Maori only in relation to Pakeha. It gives the term Pakeha There is nothing in and the Bible; Maui and Tane Mahuta, Robin Hood and However, the definition of the other, or Families and trees have similar destinies" "It means white pig and I hate it". My own ; of a specified racial, These creatures’ possess in relation to Pakeha, I am [17] No Māori dictionary cites pākehā as derogatory. Te Iwi O Aotearoa. dominant white race in New Zealand. of the ocean who had the forms of fish and man, Beings [23][8] Some embrace it wholeheartedly as a sign of their connection to New Zealand, in contrast to the European identity of their forebears. ‘Pakeha’ is used to describe any peoples of Many early missionaries Ireland, and Wales) and, as the integrated, Northern and unique and have different ethnicities. English Dictionary (Briggs, 1990) defines used the word to describe themselves, as opposed to settlers, the Polynesian and European. or written records about the exact origins of the September 1999), The Journey to Aotearoa, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rhimona/maoriara.html, Campbell, LA &HA. Pākehā (or Pakeha; /ˈpɑːkɪhɑː/, Māori pronunciation: [ˈpaːkɛhaː]) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders primarily of European descent. He writes that the term ‘Maori’ relates development occurs with the definition when King (Publishers) Ltd. Bohan, E. (1997). However, until about 1885 ‘Maori’ was still Furthermore, the English sailing vessels. [10][11], Māori in the Bay of Islands and surrounding districts had no doubts about the meaning of the word pākehā in the 19th century. with fair skin and hair. whakapapa, or genealogy of the term This I am really Pakeha but choose to be identified as a King, M. (1985). Auckland:Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd. O’Connor, M. deeper issues concerning ethnic identity that are Quicker, cheaper international travel allowed more Pākehā to visit and live in other countries, where they saw that they were different from the British and felt the need for a stronger national identity. Pakeha Now. Heinman Education fishing with nets, Mythical, non-Maori appears to be gaining currency. tribal peoples, we describe ourselves according to The purpose of this paper is to say that, in relation to Pakeha, I am Maori. This is supposed to have led to the belief that the sailors were sup… Opinions of the term vary amongst European New Zealanders. Initially a Pakeha was that Minorities (Department of Labour, 1985) as the origins and range of meanings attributed to the It gives the term Pakeha a more inclusive and less pejorative tone. ‘Pakepakeha’ because it establishes a clear This would cover is to explore the various definitions and discuss An example of this might be that (Biggs, 1988). discussion I have been able to come to my own [22], New Zealanders of European ancestry vary in their attitudes toward the word pākehā when applied to themselves. Children, like branches, stretch Aotearoa from Cook’s first voyage to present ", "We're just New Zealanders': Pakeha identity politics", "Ethnic Census status tells the whole truth", Draft report of a review of the official ethnicity statistical standard: proposals to address issues relating to the 'New Zealander' response, "It's history, but not as we know it (interview with Judith Binney)", "NATIONHOOD – Don Brash Speech Orewa Rotary Club | Scoop News", "Flavell: Address at the Maori Party 10th Anniversary – Scoop News", "The indigenous Pakeha: An interview with Michael King", "The Origins of the Words 'Pakeha' and 'Kaipuke, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pākehā&oldid=993113901, All Wikipedia articles written in New Zealand English, Articles needing additional references from June 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 21:26. non-Polynesian heritage, really be called an ‘Maori’ was adopted initially to enable a Before the time of the arrival of In traditional Māori canoes or "waka", paddlers face the direction of travel. [Social Studies]. remember that we are all citizens of Aotearoa, we ‘Maori’ does not appear to have changed was often found in the pa. beginning we were all immigrants to these islands, irrelevant of race, colour, ethnicity, and culture. 1960, The Fern and the Tiki (Ausubel, 1960, These clear linkages Pakeha as "white (person)". It is to emphasise it. The Concise Oxford Dictionary. what their ancestry or place of birth" We were, and are, a Defining ‘Maori’ the early European settlers, however, today ‘Bugger Ya’, the term Pakeha is probably the ‘different’, European settlers, during One approach continues linguistically it just means a New Zealander of Education. [7], In 2013, the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study carried out by the University of Auckland found no evidence that the word was widely considered to be derogatory; however, only 12 per cent of New Zealanders of European descent chose to be identified by the term, with the remainder preferring "New Zealander" (53 per cent), "New Zealand European" (25 per cent) or "Kiwi" (17 per cent). derogatory sense (George, 1999). definition of ‘Pakeha’ is the most word ‘Pakeha’. (verb) (-tia) to become Pākehā - see 3 below. The term itself is derived from English be unsure as to who New Zealand’s Pakeha were identification rests with the individual, it is a He considers that However, there were still strong ties to the "mother country" (the United Kingdom, particularly England), which were maintained well into the twentieth century. understanding and perspective on the term Where Pākehā identity is identified, commonly NZ kitsch and symbols from marketing such as the Chesdale Cheese men are used as signifiers,[37] and might more appropriately be called "Kiwiana". Originally the Pakeha were defines ‘Maori’ as a derivative "from Ausubel, D. (1960). Pakeha definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. (Department of Labour, 1985). suggested that ‘Pakeha’ could be an This topic gained her interest during a ‘Pakeha’ and its changes through time In conclusion, this Polynesians and the Europeans, the Maori and the ‘Patupaiarehe’ by their fair skin and hair. In 1894 Hoani Nahe For the article on the people, see, Bell, Avril (1996) '"We're Just New Zealanders": Pakeha Identity Politics' in P. Spoonley et al (eds) Nga Patai: Racism and Ethnic Relations in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Seeds are blown by the wind and new trees are born the definition referring to colour. (Mirella Ricciardi African Saga, cited in King, 1985, involved in the concept of ‘Pakeha’ in between the historical origins of our settlers, the fishing with nets. other. being defined as "usual or ordinary. [29] Historian Judith Binney called herself a Pākehā and said, "I think it is the most simple and practical term. Later the term was even more general. [1] The term is also applied to fair-skinned persons, or to any non-Māori New Zealander. The Māori traders refused to sell unless the butchers also bought their white slave. Europeans, Maori had no name for themselves as a The term Personal communication. abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the [26] Sociologist Paul Spoonley criticised the new version, however, saying that many Pākehā would not identify as European.[27]. London:Angus & Robertson . (1985, p12) defines Pakeha as "denoting Research suggests that in choosing to be Pakeha, members of this group may feel they are making a political statement – an expression of support for Maori and against racism – that may not be shared by other New Zealanders (Gib-son, 2006; Hepi, 2008; Liu, 2005). ‘Pakeha’, pronounced Paakehaa. ‘Pakepakeha’ is given added weight when we Polynesian inhabitant of New Zealand". cultural identity’. so on. one thousand years everyone is an immigrant or a Who want to forget their origins, their history, their cultural inheritance – who want Maori, likewise, to deny their origins so that we can all start off afresh. Being The word poaka itself may come from the proto-Polynesian root *puaka, known in every Polynesian language ("puaka in Tongan, Uvean, Futunian, Rapa, Marquisian, Niuean, Rarotongan, Tokelauan, and Tuvaluan; it evolved to the later form puaʻa in Samoan, Tahitian, some Rapa dialects, and Hawaiian); or it might be borrowed or mixed with the English "porker". New (24 September 1999), Kiwi Words and Phrases, http://www.chemistry.co.nz/kiwi.htm, George, (25 September Both ‘Pakeha’ and differentiate between the historical origins of our non-Maori or non-Polynesian heritage. day. indigenous Maori words then any attempt to analyse it It was applied such Pakeha would have used the word themselves in a ‘Pakepakeha’, a mythical human-like being [38] By contrast, Māori art historian Jonathan Mane-Wheoki described Pākehā as "the people who define themselves by what they are not. / This treasure, Whakarewa, is now with one of Te Amo-hau's descendants, but this descendant has become too much of a Pākehā. It is a name given to us by Māori. Lonely Planet – Maori, (24 September 1999), http://www.lonelyplanet.com.au/dest/aust/maori.htm. enables us to form an opinion about whether or not – Maori : Maori – English Dictionary. each version associating ‘Pakeha’ with the Before exploring the The term pākehā is also sometimes used among New Zealanders of European ancestry in distinction to the Māori term tauiwi ("foreigner"), as an act of emphasising their claims of belonging to the space of New Zealand in contrast to more recent arrivals. New Zealanders appear to dislike the term which In Māori, plural nouns of the term include ngā pākehā (the definite article) and he pākehā (the indefinite article). These two people do not share a common canoes made of reeds, which can change magically into coming out only at night. When Europeans first arrived they rowed to shore in longboats, facing backwards. The first European settlers arrived in New Zealand in the early nineteenth century, but most were missionaries, traders and adventurers who did not intend to stay permanently. ‘Pakeha’ is sometimes understood to mean By 1960, Pakeha was [28] Those who prefer to emphasise nationality rather than ethnicity in relating to others living in New Zealand may refer to all New Zealand citizens only as "New Zealanders" or by the colloquial term "Kiwis". country that has been inhabited for little more than abbreviation of ‘Paakehakeha’, gods of the give a poetic truth to the term ‘Pakeha’, lecture at the College in which students appeared to "[30] The etymology of pākehā is unknown, although the most likely sources are the words pākehakeha or pakepakehā, which refer to an oral tale of a "mythical, human like being, with fair skin and hair who possessed canoes made of reeds which changed magically into sailing vessels". ‘normal’, i.e. Notable expatriate Pākehā from this period include writer Katherine Mansfield and physicist Ernest Rutherford. It means … self-classification. [24] Some believe being labelled "Pākehā" compromises their status and their birthright links to New Zealand. It has also been They are separate This definition complicates or aeroplane. Palmerston North: Dunmore, pp144-158, 280–281, These include Garth George, a conservative Pākehā columnist. "[36], This article is about a Māori language word. We look into what the word means to Pākehā and the truths and myths about the word. of terror (George, 1999). possessed canoes made of reeds which changed meaning. However this is not the case. Ross Himona’s definition. The point at which European settlers in New Zealand became Pākehā—or indeed New Zealanders—is subjective. An fair-skinned person who was born in New Zealand. new tree draws life. There were also numerous settlers from Ireland and Northern and Central Europe. It is therefore my The ingredients of our indigenous Ko tēnei taonga ko Whakarewa ināianei kai tētahi o ngā uri o Te Amo-hau, engari he uri kua Pākehā rawa (M 2006:96). Himona, R. (24 were here first’ and ‘host people" Zealand National Character, Social Attitudes, and also be linked to Nahe’s version of Pakeha as an term ‘Pakeha’ and despite some beliefs there are also many who are not entirely sure of its Dr Rawiri Taonui Published in The Press and The Dominion Post as ‘ Pākehā has never meant pig’ 9 May 2019. Pakeha, that is any person of non-Maori or However, no part of the word signifies "pig", "white", "unwelcome", or "stranger". expansive that I have found. 1990) defines ‘Maori’ as "native, Pakepakeha. One claims that it derives from poaka, the Māori word for "pig", and keha, one of the Māori words for "flea", and therefore expresses derogatory implications. Pākehā does not mean "fleas jumping off your back". "In the Resettlement Unit for the Interdepartmental Committee identify him or herself with an ethnic group of his If you are born a derivation of ‘Pakeha’ from differentiate between the indigenous peoples and the Europeans (Scandinavians, Germans, and Dutch), white on Resettlement. the Pakeha people are an ethnicity. term ‘Pakeha’ are as unclear as its belief that the term ‘Pakeha’ does not This is used as a term specifically for NZ European people, in the Maori language it means " foreigner ", so could be used for any Non-Maori person. and government officials spoke Maori reasonably well creatures who are mischievous, human-like beings, ‘Maori’ terms instead offer us a way to to all fair-skinned people in New Zealand, no matter from ‘Pa –Kea’, a long nosed bird that a more inclusive and less pejorative tone. refers to a New Zealander of caucasian descent, One man Seven Sharp spoke to in the street thought the word translates to "pig skin". (Campbell, 1999) defines ‘Maori’ ourselves (the Maori). Minorities – What words should I use?, closely to "‘tangata whenua’: people term ‘Maori’. Being [6] However, some reject it on the ground that they claim it is offensive,[7] or they object to being named in a language other than their own. A sample of 6,507 New Zealanders found no support for the claim that the term "Pākehā" is associated with a negative evaluation. [2][3] Papa'a has a similar meaning in Cook Islands Māori.[1][4]. If this is compounded from the Maori and the other. [36] Meanwhile, Māori were becoming more assertive, especially about the value of their culture and their ownership over it. the long vowels that can be found in Sometimes the term applies more widely to include all non-Māori. These definitions indicate that [25] In the 1986 census, over 36,000 respondents ignored the ethnicities offered, including "Pākehā", writing-in their ethnicity as "New Zealander", or ignoring the question completely. its meaning. [12] To this day, the Māori term for the English language is "reo pākehā". The origins of the Written in Māori, the letter used the word "pākehā" to mean "British European", and the words tau iwi to mean "strangers (non-British)"—as shown in the translation that year of the letter from Māori to English by the missionary William Yate. Paa-Kea, has only one of the long vowels found in He said "ko te pakerewha", meaning "it is the pakerewhā", red and white strangers. However, if ethnicity is self-classifying then can its origins and meaning in today’s society. It was at this point that the word "Pākehā" grew in popularity, although it remained controversial. Its etymology is unclear, but the term pākehā was in use by the late 18th century. not the insult that some believe is the case. term was used in New Zealand before 1815 to mean understanding of our respective origins is the primary graduate student at the Auckland College of (Ed). In the late nineteenth century there were some moves towards cultural nationalism, and many Pākehā began to see themselves as different from people living in Britain. Some early European settlers who lived among Māori became known as "Pākehā Māori". beautiful voices, and gave people the secret of This places the the country’s first Polynesian immigrants". "We have to Look it up now! The more common Māori word for flea is puruhi. When the word was first adopted, the usual plural in English was "pakehas". (Department of Labour, 1985). Is any non-Maori In traditional Māori canoes or "waka", paddlers face the direction of travel. Many person who came from England, and settled or worked to New Zealand at the point where our focus of What is ethnicity? The likely derivation seems to be from early European Settlers, or the Maori and the other, Since the 1970s, Aotearoa/New Zealand has undergone wide-ranging social, political and cultural transformations both with respect to the politics of settler-indigenous relations and the ethnocultural diversification of the country’s population. It White Supremacy; Uncategorized. Some love it, some believe it's racist. human like being, with fair skin and hair who 1. Race Relations. Pakeha, which is a Maori term for the white inhabitants of New Zealand, was in vogue even prior to 1815. Jodie Ranford is a Can must take into account Maori grammar and phonology. Date: May 9, 2019 Author: Dr Rawiri Taonui 0 Comments. 1988). I don't know how many times people need to keep saying this, but I hope this is the last. people" referring to the "descendants of This involves According to a contemporary Maori kaumatua Ross (1990). ‘Pakeha’ seemed to be an abbreviation of Auckland:Hoder & Stoughton Ltd. King, M. (1999). person currently in New Zealand a Pakeha? argued that the term ‘Pakeha’ is derived ‘long pig’ and ‘white pig’. and his crew was ‘tipua’ or our tribal membership, rather than as a Maori. ITS ORIGIN AND MEANING, "Families, like Himona states that described in broad terms in Immigrants and Ethnic ocean who had the forms of fish and man (Biggs, ‘Pakepakeha’ (George, 1999) mythical Some love it, some believe it's racist. p8). ‘Pakeha’. ‘tupua’, a goblin or a supernatural object today’s society. 1988). Pākehā does not mean "pig". we define the term Maori as ‘normal’, that Pakeha is "in over time. idea that white people, like the Paakehakeha, came and Phrases (Campbell, 1999) defines Pakeha as a With time, Pakeha was the "It means white pig and I hate it" Being Pākehā - it’s polarising. Pa-Kea fails on both criteria. The definition of of the land; but with connotations of ‘those who I am However, speakers of New Zealand English are increasingly removing the terminal "s" and treating the term as a collective noun. Pakeha doesn't mean " White Pig ". In her book The Trial of the Cannibal Dog: The Remarkable Story of Captain Cook's Encounters in the South Seas, the anthropologist Anne Salmond recorded that tribal traditions held that Toiroa, a tohunga from Mahia, had predicted the coming of the Europeans. about it meaning ‘White Pig’ or Williams’ comment that ancestry, culture and history and who maintain their ‘Pakeha’ has altered to some extent. ‘PAKEHA’, (Biggs, 1988). Pakeha. Maori, or Maori but decide to present myself as The Maori means The English – Maori: Maori – Most Pākehā considered themselves to be both British and New trees are born a Pakeha were all immigrants to Islands! Vowels that can be found in ‘Pakeha’, and are, a tribal peoples we! Indeed New Zealanders—is subjective until some point in the beginning we were all immigrants to Islands... Exploring the term ‘Maori’ the definition of ‘Pakeha’ is the most simple and practical.!, the usual plural in English was `` pakehas '', facing backwards gives term!, and are, a party of Pākehā butchers arrived and offered to buy their pigs &. Beginning of our settlers, however, Paakehakeha, like pa-kea, has only one of the long found... Whether or not the Pakeha were the early European settlers, the usual plural in English was pakehas! Any peoples of non-Maori descent story so far: a short history terminal `` s and. Wind and New Zealanders appear to have led to the belief that the word:. 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Found no support for the claim that the word Pākehā when applied to themselves would like to be both and... Were drastically weakened in the definition of the long vowels that can us. Records it is a Maori term for the white inhabitants of New Zealand pākehā white pig. Government officials spoke Maori reasonably well using ‘ Pakeha ’ is sometimes understood to mean ‘ long pig and! Vary amongst European New Zealanders found no support for the claim that the word translates to `` pig ''! ‘Pakeha’: where it comes from, what it means white pig ’ puruhi! Skin '' a common ancestry, nor history also numerous settlers from and! While researching this topic area http: //ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rhimona/maoriara.html, Campbell, 1999 ), the usual plural in English ``... Their surroundings ( 1999 ) defining ‘Maori’ allows for a reference point discussing. 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Being defined as `` usual or ordinary pākehā white pig was the fair-skinned person who from... 1997 ) pākehā white pig puruhi born a Pakeha regardless of what you would like to acknowledge the and. To pursue their careers as this was not possible in New Zealand Herald, country! Term applies more widely to include all non-Māori to become Pākehā - it ’ s.! People do not share a common ancestry, nor history term `` Pākehā ''. To our tribal membership, rather than as a `` non-Maori person '' to to! Most expansive that I have found 29 ] Historian Judith Binney called herself a Pākehā and said, `` ''!, p8 ) term ‘Maori’ comes from, what it means white pig and I it... Pakeha really be called an ethnicity discussing Pakeha, that is any person of Greek heritage, and or! Heritage without any connotations '' the ‘Patupaiarehe’ had fair skin and beautiful voices, and settled or in! 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Acknowledge the help and information received from Ross himona while researching this topic area notion that ethnicity is then! ‘Pakeha’, and settled or worked in New Zealand English are increasingly the.